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全球反应堆延期问题探索(上)
时间: 2020年10月07日 来源:bb滚球王-官网APP下载 点击量: 2433 分享:

quanshijie30geguojiagongyoudayue440geshangyeduiyunxing,wendingdigongyingdianneng。erqiehenduoyijingyunxingle30-50nian,youxieyijinghuodeshouquanyunxinggengzhangdeshijian。

 

weilequebaoquanqiuzaiyunfanyingduihe50duozuozaijianfanyingduinenggouanquangaoxiaoyunxingjishinian,kexuejiahegongchengshimenzhengnuligaijinjiance、fenxihepingguzheixiefanyingduizhuyaojiegoujinshubujianqiangduhewanzhengxingdefangfa。


tongshi,tamenyezhengzaikaifaxindehejinhetaoci,genghaodichengshoufanyingduiduixinjiduanwenduheyalixiadefushihesunhuai。

 

bb滚球王1.“guoqi”fanyingduikunjing。

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反应堆装置通常设计使用四十年左右,这四十年中,装置日复一日地承受极端温度、压力和电离辐射的环境。而现在,许多“过期”反应堆要求再至少运行20年。

 

weileyanzhangfanyingduideshiyongshouming,kexuejiahegongchengshimenzhengzaibuduangaijinjiancehepingguxiangguanjiegoujinshuwanzhengxingheqiangdudefangfa。tamenzhengzaikaifanaifushidetidaicailiao,baozhengfanyingduianquankekaodiyunxing60nian,shenzhigengzhangshijian。

 

“meiguodehenengjianduijinianhoujiuhuidaodaneili。”jiali·wosi(gary s. was)shuo。

 

wosishimeiguomixiegendaxuecailiaokexuejiahehecailiaogongchengshi,yeshicailiaokangfushifangmiandezhuanjia,tazhide“henengjiandui”jiushishangyedui。

 

genjumeiguonengyuanxinxiguanliju(eia)deshuju,meiguo29gezhouyou96gezaiyunfanyingdui。2019nian,zhei96gefanyingduigongyinglemeiguoyue20%dedianli,pingjunshiyongnianxianyuewei38nian。

 

bb滚球王jucheng,daduoshuzuixianchiyou40nianfanyingduiyunyingxukezhengdegongyongshiyegongsi,qidianzhanyijinghuodele20nianyanqi。

 

meiguoheguanliweiyuanhui(nuclear regulator commission)zaimeiguodongnanbuhedongbeibudegonggongshiwuguanyuanluojie·hanna(roger hannah)henier·xien(neil sheehan)fenbiezhengshi,weiyumaiamiyinan40gonglidetuerqijiao(turkey point)hedianzhanhehalisibaodongnan80gonglidetaohuadi(peach bottom)hedianzhan,zuijinyoushoudaoleyanqitongyixuke,liangzuodianzhankeyizuizhongyunying80nian。

 

bb滚球王hannahexienbuchongshuo,qitadianchangyezaixunqiuyanqidefangfa。

 

wosishuo: “yeneishenzhiyourenshuoyaoyanzhangdao100nian。”


yanzhangfanyingduiyunxingshijiandequshibingbujuxianmeiguo。shijiegedifenbuzheyue440zuofanyingdui,pingjunnianling30nian,zhengtizaimaixianglaolinghua。suiranqizhongyixiedianzhanjihuaguanbihetuiyi,danxuduozhengzaishengjibujian,xiwangnenggoudadayanzhangqiyunxingnianxian。

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同时也不断有新电站在bb滚球王。例如在美国,佐治亚州韦恩斯博罗附近的沃格特发电厂的两座反应堆即将完工。

 

tongshi,genjushijiehexiehuideshuju,muqianyou50gefanyingduizai15geguojiajianzao,zhuyaoshizhongguo、yindu、eluosihealianqiu。

 

bb滚球王weilegenshang2040nianshijienengyuanshiyongliangyujizengzhang28%debufa,lingwai100gefanyingduizhengzaidinggouhuojihuazhong。

 

bb滚球王make·nate(mark nutt)shuo,zaikaolvruhequebaozheixiefanyingduichixu、anquan、kekaodigongyingdianlishi,“jibendoushiguanyulaohuaguanlifangmiande”。

 

nateshuo,cailiaohefushikexuedebuduanjinbuduifanyingduiyanzhangyunxingqizhezhongyaozuoyong。


 2.hedianzhanfadianyuanli

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在反应堆中,内部发生裂变反应产生热量,接着利用冷却剂回路将热量输送出来,加热水形成蒸汽(白色),驱动蒸汽涡轮机发电。利用完的蒸汽冷却并冷凝成液态水,返回蒸汽发生器。

 

tongguojiangkongzhibangcharufanyingduiduixinhuojiangqichouchu,dianchangcaozuoyuankeyidiaojiefanyingduidewenduhegonglvshuchu。kongzhibangyouge、penghehadengzhongzixishoucailiaozhicheng,keyizuzhiheliebianliansuofanying。

 

xiangzheizhongzhuangzhimeigedianzhandouyoushubaige,meigeyoudouyoushubaigechongmaneryanghuayoukelidexizhangguanzizucheng,zaifanyingduizhongchenrushunian。


hedonglixitongliyongfanyingzhongshifangdegaowenfadian,qiyunxingyuanliyuranmei、tianranqiheqitahuashiranliaofadianchangdazhixiangtong。genjueiadeshuju,zai2019nian,zheileiranliaofadianhejiyuezhanmeiguofadianliangde63%。

 

bb滚球王zaisuoyouzheileidianchangzhong,reliangchanshengzhengqi,zhengqiqudongwolunjixuanzhuanyundonglaifadian。zaishuilihefengliwolunjizhong,liudongdeshuihuofengzhijieshiwolunjixuanzhuan。

 

yutongguoranshaohuashiranliaochanshengreliangdefadianchangbutong,shangyefanyingduishiyongdeshizhijinghezhangduyuewei10haomideeryanghuayoukeli。

 

ranliaozhizaoshangjiangzheixiedouzidaxiaodekelizhuangru4.5mizhangdexizhangjinshuguanzhong,jinshuguanyoukeshentouzhongzidegaobaocengcailiaozhicheng。

 

genjuranliaobangsheji,dayue200geranliaobangzuzhuangchengyizu。shubaigezheiyangdezhuangzhibaohanleshubaiwangeeryanghuayoukeli,zongzhongliangyue100dun,yanmeizaiyigezhuangmanzairejiezhihuolengquejidejuxingrongqizhong。

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在绝大多数商业反应堆中,冷却剂是水。

 

bb滚球王qudongfanyingduiderelianglaiziranliaoxinkuaizhongdeyou235he。dangzheixieyuanzihefashengzifaliebianshi,tamenfenliechenglianggegengxiaodeyuanzihe,shifangchurelianghezhongzi。zhongzikeyiyueryanghuayouzhongdeqitayou235hexiangzhuang,fashengliebianfanying,shifangchugengduodereliangheewaidezhongzi。

 

bb滚球王zheixiezhongzikeyizhuangjiqitayouhe,congeryinfaliansuofanying,jiareranliaobangzujian,jinerjiareshui。

 

bb滚球王hedianzhancaozuorenyuantongguojiangxishouzhongzidekongzhibangcharuduixinbingquchu,laidiaojieliansuofanyinghefanyingduiwendu。

 

bb滚球王zuichangjiandehedonglifanyingduishiyashuidui。zheizhongfanyingduijiangshuibaochizaigaoyu15 mpa(150 atm)degaoyaxia,dangshuiliuguoranliaobangshi,suiranwendushenggao,danrengbaochiweireyeti。zaizheizhonghuanjingxia,shuidewendukeyidadao320°czuoyou。

 

weifangzhifangshexingwuzhikuosan,zheiyibufendeshuishizaiyigefengbidehuanjingneixunhuan: chengweiyihuiludeguandaoxitong,yuwaijiemeiyouzhijiejiechu,liyongguoredejiayashuixunhuanjiangreliangchuandidaofeifangshexingerhuilu,shiqizhongdeshuifeiteng,bianchengzhengqiqudongwolunji。

 

3.shangyeduiyunxingdezhuyaosunshang

 

bb滚球王wulunjinshuyouduojianying,yugaowen、gaoyadeshuibuduanjiechudouhuiduijinshuzaochengsunhai。youyufanyingduihuanjingzhongjiaoweijiduandereliang、yalihefusheqiangduhuanjing,yigexiaowentikeyihenkuaifazhanchengdaquexian。

 

bb滚球王pnnl(meiguonengyuanbutaipingyangxibeiguojiashiyanshi)dexiangmujingliyalun·diyazi(aaron diaz)shuo,chuyuzheigeyuanyin,jianyanrenyuanjingchangshiyonggaofenbianlvchaoshengbo、diancichengxiangheqitafangfa,zai25limihoudefanyingduibi、anquanxitongheqitafanyingduibujianzhongxunzhaoweixiaodequexian、liefenghepilaojixiang。

 

suiranfanyingduibujianzhongdebuxiugangheniejihejinnenggouzaihendachengdushangchengshouzhusunshanghefushi,danyouxiaoguobutaihao。youxieqingkuangxia,yizhongchengweiyinglifushikailie(scc)dehuaxuesunshangnenggouxueruoguanjianbujianqiangdu。

 

genjupnnlcailiaokexuejiamychailotoloczkodeshuofa,zheizhongleixingdesunshangkenengfashengzaiyizhongjinshuzhijiandehanjiejietouchu,yinweihanfenghuisuizhelengqueheshousuoerchanshengjixieyingli,jinerchanshengbandiansunshang。ruguozheixiebandiankaishifushi,jiuhuitebierongyifashengweiguankailie,congerdaozhishixiao。

 

bb滚球王toloczkoshuo,zheizhongpohuaimoshitongchangbeirenweishishangyeduide“zhuyaoshoumingxianzhidetuihuajizhi”。

 

ehaiezhoutuolaiduofujindedaiweisi-beisihedianzhanjiufashengguozheizhongyanzhongpohuai,buguotongguoduijiancedaodefushiwentijinxingfenxi,renmengenghaodilejieleniejihejindesunshangjili,bingnulikaifachugengnaifushidecailiao。

 

4.daiweisi-beisihedianzhan

 

2002nian,daiweisi-beisihedianzhanzaiyicilixingtingduihuanliaoheanquanjianchaqijian,dianchangcaozuorenyuanzhuyidaofanyingduidingbuchuxianfushihekailie。

 

dangshidehuanliaotingjihuodongshianguidingjinxingde,tongchangmeige12-18geyuelixingguanbiyicifanyingdui,yichuyongguodeheranliao,tihuantianjiaxinranliao。

 

zai2002niandelixinganquanjianchazhong,jiancharenyuanfaxian,jiangkongzhibangfangrufanyingduiduixindejixiezhuangzhiyijingshousun,zheizhongjixiezhuangzhikeyishilianshifanyingtingzhi,bingdiaojiefanyingduiwenduhegonglvshuchu。

 

zaiquxiabufenshangbubujianhou,jiancharenyuanzaixiafangfaxianlepengsuanchenjiwuhe“yigezuqiudaxiaodekong”。bogedan·yalishandeluonu(bogdanalexandreanu)shuo(yalishandeluonushiagongguojiashiyanshi(argonne nationallaboratory)yanjiuyuan,houzhuanmenfenxishousunfengtoudesuipian)。

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亚历山德罗努解释说,由于硼能有效地捕获中子,工程师通常会在冷却剂水中添加微量浓度(百万分之几)的硼酸,以帮助控制裂变速率。他们通过添加氢氧化锂来平衡pH值。

 

yinglifushidaozhikongzhibangjigoudeyibufenxingchengleweixiaodeliewen,erqiegaibuweitongguohanjielianjielegezhonghejin,baokuoyizhongbeichengwei600hejindenie-ge-tiecailiao。

 

bb滚球王zheixieliefengshihanpengreshuicongfanyingduineibuhuanmantongguobingcongfengzhongyichu。suizhexieloudeshuijujibingzhengfa,pengsuandenongduzengjia,zhujianxingchengfushixingrongye。fanyingduidinggaibushiyou600hejinzhichengde,fushixingrongyeqinshiledabufendefanyingduidinggai。

 

bb滚球王jiaodicengyoulingyizhonghejinzhicheng,kangzhulefushixingrongyedeqinshi。zheicengcailiaotongshikongzhizhejiayalengqueji,bimianlekenengdezainan。

 

bb滚球王dianchangcaozuorenyuanyongyigefeichangxiangsidedinggaitihuanleshousundedinggai,gaidinggaicongyigequxiaodedianchangshigongzuoyezhonghuode。

 

2010nian,zheigedinggaiyudiyicigenghuanshixiangtongdeweizhishixiao: hanyou600hejindehanjiebuwei。


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