bb滚球王

2020年09月03日   星期四欢迎来到中国核能行业协会官网
当前位置:
智库语林
核电厂长期运行(LTO)——核电经济性的最优选择
时间: 2020年08月18日 来源:bb滚球王-官网APP下载 作者: 李颖涵 戴 定 编译 点击量: 326 分享:

bb滚球王SHIJIEHEXIEHUI(WNA)2020NIAN6YUEFABU《HENENGZICHANDECHIJIUJIAZHI》BAOGAO。BAOGAOJIESHAOLEHEDIANCHANGZHANGQIYUNXING(LTO)DEYOUSHI,ZHICHULTOSHINENGYUANJINGJIXINGZUIYOUDEXUANZE,FENXIDANGQIANHEDIANJIZUTIQIANGUANTINGYUANYIN,BINGTICHUQUEBAOHEDIANCHANGLTOXUYAOKAIZHANDEGONGZUO。

1 在运核电机组具备长期运行的能力

LTODEMUDESHIJIANGHEDIANCHANGYUNXINGSHOUQIYANZHANGZHICHAOGUOYUANXUKEZHENGSHOUQIHUOSHEJIYUNXINGSHOUQI,SHIQINENGGOUZAIGENGZHANGSHIJIANNEIYIKEKAO、DICHENGBENQIEDITANPAIFANGDEFANGSHISHENGCHANDIANLI,CONGERSHIXIANJIAZHIZUIDAHUA。DADUOSHUZAIYUNHEDIANJIZUZUICHUDESHEJIYUNXINGSHOUQIWEI30ZHI40NIAN,DANZHEIBINGFEIYOUYUJISHUXIANZHI。RUJIN,ZAIMANZUFAGUI、ANQUANXINGHEJINGJIXINGYAOQIUHOU,HEDIANCHANGYANSHOUYICHENGWEIYIZHONGCHANGJIANZUOFA。

2019NIAN,YIPIHEDIANJIZUYUNXINGQIMAN50NIAN,ZHEISHIYIGEZHONGYAODELICHENGBEI。YINDUTALAPUER(Tarapur)1HAOJIZULVXIANSHIXIAN,QICISHITALAPUER2HAOJIZU、RUISHIBEIZINAO(Beznau)1HAOJIZU、MEIGUOJIUYINGLIFENG(Nine Mile Point)1HAOJIZUHEJINGNA(Ginna)JIZU。ZHEIXIEJIZUJIANGZAIBIZUICHUYUQIGENGZHANGDESHIJIANLI,JIXUSHENGCHANQINGJIEKEKAODEDIANLI。

HEDIANCHANGLTOYIYOUCHENGGONGSHIFANDEXIANLI。MEIGUOYONGYOUQUANQIUYILINGZUIZHANGDEHEDIANJIZU,QIZHONGDADUOSHUJIZUDEYUNXINGXUKEZHENGYIZAI40NIANQIXIANDEJICHUSHANGYANZHANG20NIAN。JINGUANNIANDAIJIUYUAN,ZHEIXIEDIANCHANGDEYEJIRENGRANSHIFENZHUOYUE,FUHEYINZICHAOGUO90%。XUDUOYUNYINGSHANGSHENZHIXIWANGZAICIYANSHOUZHI80NIAN。2019NIAN12YUE,FOLUOLIDAZHOUTUERQIJIAO(Turkey Point)CHENGWEIQUANQIUDIYIZUOHUOZHUNYANSHOUZHI80NIANDEHEDIANCHANG。

bb滚球王TANDAOHEDIANCHANGLAOHUAWENTI,GEGUOMIANLINZHUDUOTIAOZHAN,BINGFEISUOYOUHEDIANJISHUDOUNENGSHIXIANYANSHOU。LIRU,YOUYUSHIMOZUJIANSHOUMINGYOUXIANQIEWUFATIHUAN,YINGGUOXIANJINQILENGDUI(AGR)JIANGZAIWEILAI10NIANNEIQUANBUGUANTING,PINGJUNYUNXINGSHOUQIWEI40ZHI50NIAN。ELUOSIDAGONGLVFEITENGGUANSHIDUI(RBMK)YEMIANLINLEISIWENTI,RIYILAOHUADESHIMOZHUANGZHIJIANGDILEJIZUYUNXINGXINGNENG,BINGJIANGQISHOUMINGXIANZHIZAI45NIANZUOYOU。DANZHEILEIJISHUZHIZHANSHIJIEHEDIANCHANGDEXIAOBUFEN,DADUOHEDIANJIZUSHUJUNCAIYONGYASHUIDUI(PWR)、FEISHUIDUI(BWR)HEJIAYAZHONGSHUIDUI(PHWR)JISHU,MEIYOUSHOUMINGFANGMIANDETESHUXIANZHI。CIWAI,GUANYULAOHUAWENTIDEJISHUYANJIUYEZAIBUDUANFAZHAN,SHENZHIYOUWANGZHAODAOSHIMODUIYANSHOUDEJIEJUEFANGAN,BINGKENENGJUYOUGENGGAODEFUHEYINZI。

14882.jpg

图1 截至2020年1月,目前反应堆的在运时间(资料来源:bb滚球王-官网APP下载

1.1 部分核电机组提前关停原因

bb滚球王DADUOSHUHEDIANJIZUGUANTINGBINGBUSHIYOUYUSHEBEILAOHUAWENTI,ERSHISHOUSHICHANG、JINGJITIAOJIANHUOZHENGFUFALINGYINGXIANGDEJIEGUO。ZAIXUDUOHEDIANCHANG,HESHIGUANTINGJIZUDEJUEDINGQUANYOUZHENGFUZHANGWO。JISHIYUNYINGSHANGYOUXUANZEQUAN,ZHENGFUYEKETONGGUOYINRUXINDESHUISHOUZHENGCEJISHICHANGGAIGE,HUOZHETUIDONGJIANGUANJIGOUZHIDINGXINDETOUZIBIAOZHUN,POSHIHEDIANCHANGTIQIANGUANTING。RUOZHENGFUNENGJIYUZHICHI,MEIGUODUOTAIJIZUYINGNENGBIMIANTIQIANGUANTING。SHISHISHANG,GUANYUSHIFOUbbGUNQIUWANGYIJIRUHEWEICHIBINGJIANGUANHEDIANCHANG,CONGGENBENSHANGJIANGRENGSHIYIGEZHENGZHIWENTI。

SHUILIYALIEJISHUDECHENGSHU,SHIDIJIAYEYANQIDAPICHUXIAN,DAOZHIDIANLISHICHANGJIAGEXIAJIANG,JIANJIECUSHIMEIGUODUOTAIHEDIANJIZUYINJINGJIYINSUTIQIANGUANTING,DANQIJUEDINGXINGZUOYONGDERENGRANSHISHICHANGJIEGOU。YOUYUZHENGFUDUIHEDIANCHANGZHENGSHUI,RUIDIANHEXIBANYAZUIJINYEYOUBUFENHEDIANCHANGGUANTING。

CIWAI,HAIYOUZHENGZHIYINSUDAOZHIDEGUANTING。LIRUDEGUO、HANGUOYINQIGUONEIDEQIHEZHENGCEGUANTINGLEBUFENJIZU。SILUOFAKEDENGZHONG、DONGOUGUOJIAYINOUMENGRUMENGYAOQIUERGUANTINGLAOJIUJIZU。

ZHENGCE、FAGUI、WEIHUCHENGBENHESHICHANGDENGYINSUDEGONGTONGZUOYONGSHIDAOZHIHEDIANJIZUGUANTINGDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。2011NIAN3YUEFUDAOHESHIGUZHISHEJISITAIJIZU,DANZHIHOURIBENGEDIDEDIANLIGONGSIYIZHIWUFACONGDIFANGZHENGFUHUODEZHONGQIHEDIANJIZUDEXUKE。XINANQUANBIAOZHUNCHUTAIHOU,DUOJIAGONGSIYINCHENGBENYUANYINFANGQIDUIJIUJIZUSHENGJIGAIZAO,DAOZHISHIYUTAIJIZUXUANZEGUANTING。

1.2 LTO的价值

ZUOWEIDITANZHANLVEDEYIBUFEN,HEDIANCHANGLTOBUJINNENGGOUJIANGDIXIAOFEIZHEDENENGYUANZHICHU,HAIYOUZHUYUBAOHUHUANJING。YOUYUDIANCHANGCENGMIANDEJINGJI、ZHENGZHIYUANYIN,HEDIANJIZUTIQIANGUANTINGDEQUSHIYIYINFASHEHUIGEJIEGUANZHU。YUELAIYUEDUODEGONGMINTUANTIHEGUOJIZUZHIHUYUJIANGHENENGSHIWEIGAISHANQIHOUBIANHUADEYOUXIANXUANZE,BINGXIANGGEGUOZHENGFUSHIYA,YAOQIUZUZHIHEDIANCHANGGUOZAOGUANBI。

58316.png

图2 2000年至2020年1月,因不同原因关停的反应堆数量

ZAIDADUOSHUNENGYUANSHICHANG,RUGUOYIPINGZHUNHUACHENGBEN(LCOE)JISUAN,LTOSHIZUIJINGJIDEXUANZE,ZHEIZHONGZHUANGTAIYUJIJIANGBAOCHIJISHINIAN。ZAIDADUOSHUFAZHANZHONGGUOJIA,XINJIANHENENGRENGRANSHIZUIBIANYIDEDITANJISHUZHIYI。ZAIMEIGUODENGFADAGUOJIA,JIANZAOYIZUOTONGLEIXINGHEDIANCHANGDECHENGBENSHIYANZHANGXIANYOUHEDIANCHANGSHOUMINGDELIANGBEIZHIDUO(TU3)。CIWAI,HEDIANCHANGLCOEBAOHANLEBAOKUOFEIWUGUANLIZAINEIDESUOYOUCHENGBEN。XIANGBIZHIXIA,HUASHIRANLIAODIANCHANGLCOEWEIBAOHANXIANGGUANTANCHENGBEN,KEZAISHENGNENGYUANDELCOEWEIBAOHANDIANWANGDIAOPINDENGCHENGBEN,ZHEIXIECHENGBENZUIZHONGJUNXUYOUXIAOFEIZHECHENGDAN。

CIWAI,HENENGYUANBUZHIFADIANZHEIYIXIANGNENGLI。ZHENGFUZAIQUEDINGSHICHANGKUANGJIASHISHIFOUCHENGRENBINGGULIYIXIAZHEIXIEYOUSHI,SHIYINGXIANGHEDIANWEILAIQIANJINGDEGUANJIANYINSUZHIYI。

HENENGDEYOUSHI:

• DITAN、PAIFANGLIANGSHAO。

• YUQITANENGYUANXIANGBI,TUDIHEZIYUANZHANYONGLIANGJIAOXIAO。

• YOUXIAOBIMIANLEDANYANGHUAWU、LIUYANGHUAWU、ZHONGJINSHUHEKELIWUDENGWURAN。

• TIGONGCHIXUDIANLI,BINGKEGENJUYONGDIANXUQIUDIAOFENGYUNXING。

• TONGGUOJIANSHAODUIJIDUANTIANQIXIANXIANGHEWAIBUWEIXIEDECUIRUOXING,TIGAONENGYUANDANXING。

• TIGONGYOUZHUYUWENDINGDIANWANGHEDIAOJIEPINLVDEZHUANDONGGUANLIANG。

bb滚球王• NENGGOUCHUCUNRANLIAO,TIGAOLENENGYUANGONGYINGANQUANXING。

bb滚球王• ZHUYAOWEIYUFEICHENGSHIDIQU,WEIDANGDITIGONGLEGAOJIGONGZUOGANGWEIHEJINGJIHUODONG。

• KEWEIYANJIU、YIXUE、GONGYEHENONGYETIGONGTONGWEISUHEZHICHI。

• YOUZHUYUGONGRE、GONGYEHEYUNSHUBUMENDETUOTAN。

27637.jpg

图3 中国和美国不同发电技术的能源平准化成本(LCOE)(数据来源:bb滚球王-官网APP下载

ZAIZHENGFUJIANQIHOUBIANHUAZHUANMENWEIYUANHUI(IPCC)FABU《QUANQIUSHENGWEN1.5℃TEBIEBAOGAO》HOU,SHEHUITUANTIHEJIGOUJINPOGANYURIJUZENG,HENENGZHUJIANBEIRENWEISHIYINGDUIQIHOUBIANHUADEGUANJIANJISHU。GUOJINENGYUANSHU(IEA)SHUZHANGFATIHE·BILUOER(Fatih Birol)BIAOSHI: “YANZHANGHEDIANCHANGDESHOUMINGBUJINSHIYIZHONGJINGJIYOUXIAODEJIEJUEFANGAN,HAINENGRANGbbGUNQIUWANGDEQIHOUMUBIAOBAOCHIHUOLI。ZHEISHIDANGJINZUIJINPODEZHENGCETIAOZHAN。”

bb滚球王TAOTAIKEKAODEDITANNENGYUANFADIANSHESHIERBUSHIHUASHIRANLIAODIANCHANGDEZUOFAWUFABANGZHUGEGUOSHIXIANJIANPAIMUBIAO。LIRU,JINGUANZAIXUDUORENKANLAIDEGUOSHIHUANJINGBAOHUDECHANGDAOZHE,DANJUTONGJI,CONGJUEDUIZHILAIKAN,DEGUODEERYANGHUATANPAIFANGLIANGWEIYUSUOYOUOUZHOUGUOJIAZHISHOU。JIANYUQIHEDIANTAOTAIZHENGCE,DEGUOWEILAISIHUJIANGZHUYAOYILAIYUHUASHIRANLIAO。ZUIJINFABUDEMEITANTAOTAISHIJIANBIAOZHENGSHILEZHEIYIQINGKUANG。GENJUSHIJIANBIAO,DEGUOJIANGYU2038NIANTAOTAIMEITAN,BINGZAIZHIHOUBAOCHIDUITIANRANQIDEYILAI。

bb滚球王CONGYUNYINGSHANGDEJIAODULAIKAN,HEDIANCHANGLTOYEJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。YUNYINGSHANGYONGYOUJISHU、JINGYAN、BIYAORENLIZIYUANYIJIJICHUSHESHI,LTOQUZHENGGUOCHENGJIANGBIJIANZAOXINHEDIANCHANGGENGDIJIA、GENGRONGYI,ERQIEHAIYANZHANGLEJIANZAOFEIWUGUANLISHESHIHECHONGSHITUIYIZIJINDESHIJIAN。DANGDISHEQUYEJIANGSHOUYIYUCI。GUANTINGYIZUOHEDIANCHANGJIANGZAOCHENGHENDACHENGDUDESHEHUIDONGDANG,MEIGUOFOMENGTEZHOUDEFOYANGJIHEDIANCHANG(Vermont Yankee)2014NIANTUIYISHI,DANGDIJINGJISUNSHIDA6000DUOWANMEIYUAN,SHUISHOUZHISHAOSUNSHI1200WANMEIYUAN,DALIANGRENYUANSHIYE。

bb滚球王MEIGUOHEOUZHOUDEXINHEDIANCHANGbbGUNQIUWANGXIANGMUZUIJINZAISHIJIANHEYUSUANSHANGDOUCHUXIANLEJUDACHAOZHI,JIANJIETISHENGLELTODEXIYINLI。RANER,YOUYUXIANYOUHEDIANCHANGZHONGJIANGGUANTING,BUNENGJIANGLTOSHIZUOSHIXINJIANHEDIANCHANGDETIDAIFANGAN。LTOCONGGENBENSHANGSHUOZHISHIYIZHONGTOUZIJIAODIDEQUANYIZHIJI,bbGUNQIUWANGXINHEDIANCHANGDUIYUHEGONGYEDEZHANGQIFAZHANHESHIXIANQIHOUMUBIAODOUBUKEHUOQUE。LTOYINGWEIXINJIANXIANGMUQIDAOQIAOLIANGDEZUOYONG,BINGBANGZHUZAIJILEIXIANGMUJINGYANDETONGSHIBAOCHIHEXINXINGYEJINGZHENGLI,JINYIBUJIANGDIWEILAIXINJIANXIANGMUCHENGBEN。

2 确保LTO顺利实施的关键要素

bb滚球王LTODESHUNLISHISHIXUQUEBAOLTOZAIJUYOUCHENGBENXIAOYIDETONGSHI,SHIHEDIANCHANGBAOCHIGAOXINGNENGSHUIPINGYUNXING,SHEJIXINGYE(BAOKUOYUNYINGSHANGHEGONGYINGLIAN)、JIANGUANJIGOUHEZHENGCEZHIDINGZHE。

2.1 运营商

DUIYUHEDIANYUNYINGSHANGERYAN,YINGJINZAOZAIXIANGMUDESHEJICHUQIYANJIULTOFANGAN。LTODEZHUNBEIGONGZUOSHOUJIANGUANWANSHANQINGKUANG、ZHUANGJIGUIMODENGYINSUYIJIXIANGGUANJINGYANSHUIPINGDENGYINGXIANG,RUOBUJIZAOJINXINGZHUNBEIGONGZUO,KENENGHUIZENGJIAXIANGMUCHENGBENHEFENGXIAN。

bb滚球王JIANLIHEDIANCHANGSHOUMINGGUANLITIXI(PLiM)TONGYANGZHONGYAO。PLiMDEMUDESHIQUEDINGDIANCHANGZHENGGESHENGMINGZHOUQINEISUOYOUXUQIUHEYINGXIANGYINSU,BAOCHIGAOANQUANXINGBINGYOUHUADIANCHANGXINGNENG。PLiMJIANGZONGHEKAOLVLAOHUAJIANCEYUJINGJIGUIHUA,CONGERJIEJUESHEBEILAOHUA、WEIXIUPAIXU、DINGQIANQUANSHENCHA、JIAOYUPEIXUNDENGYIXILIEYANSHOUWENTI。

bb滚球王ZUOWEIPLiMDEYIBUFEN,YUNYINGSHANGYINGCAIYONGTINGYUNHEJIANXIUYOUHUAJISHU,JINKENENGCAIYONGGAIJINDEZHUANGTAIJIANXIUFANGFA(comdition-based maintenance),XUANZEZUIYOUDEZHANGQIZICHANGUANLIJIHUA。LTODECHENGGONGSHISHIHAIQUJUEYUSHIFOUYOUSHIDANGDESHEJIBIANGENGHEZHISHIGUANLIFANGAN,ZHEIDUIYUWEIHUBIAOZHUNHUAHEDIANJIZUYOUWEIZHONGYAO。RUGUOGAIZAOSHENGJIQUEFAWANZHENGJILU,JIANGSHIDESHENGJIHEGENGHUANXITONGZUJIANDEGUOCHENGGENGJUTIAOZHANXING。

LTOSHENGJIHEQUZHENGHUODONGKAISHIQIAN,YUNYINGSHANGHAIYINGDUIWEILAIJISHINIANZHONGKENENGCHUXIANDEJIHUIHEFENGXIANJINXINGFENXIYUCE。ZHEIYIWEIZHEYAOJIANGXINXINGJISHUKAOLVZAINEI,LIRUKEZAISHENGNENGYUAN、ZHINENGDIANBIAOHEDIANDONGQICHEDENG。TONGSHIHAIYINGKAOLVSHIFOUXUYINRUFUHEGENZONGHUOREDIANLIANCHAN(RUQINGQISHENGCHAN、QUYUGONGREDENG)DENGYUNXINGMOSHI,QUEBAOJINGJIKEXINGXING。

bb滚球王ZAILTOQUZHENGZHIQIAN,HAIXUJIEJUEBUFENJINGJIHEFALVCENGMIANDEWENTI,LIRU:

● SUOYOUQUAN: BUFENZAIYUNHEDIANCHANGDESUOYOUQUANJIEGOUFUZA,DUOGESUOYOUZHEKENENGWUFAJIULTODACHENGTONGYIYIJIAN。RUODIANCHANGXIANGYAOZAIYUANSHOUQIJICHUSHANGJIXUYUNYING,KENENGXUYAOGAIBIANSUOYOUQUANJIEGOU。

● TUDIZULIN: KENENGXUZHONGXINXIESHANGTUDISHIYONGQINGKUANG。

● SHICHANGQINGKUANG: BAOKUONENGFOUZAIXINSHOUQINEIHUODELTOTOUZIDEHUIBAO,LIRUZHANGQIDEGOUDIANXIEYIDENG。

● TUIYIHEFEIWUGUANLIZIJIN: YINYUNYINGQIYANZHANGJIWEILAIFEIWULIANGBIANHUADEYINGXIANG,YONGYUTUIYIHEFEIWUGUANLIDEZIJINSHUEYEYINGDIAOZHENG。

bb滚球王ZAILTOQUANGUOCHENGZHONG,YEXUZHUYIRENLIZIYUANBAOZHANG。HEDIANCHANG60NIANDEYUNXINGSHOUQIYICHAOGUORENJUNGONGZUONIANXIAN,ZHEIJIUYIWEIZHEZAIDIANCHANGYUNYINGHOUQI,XUYAOZHURUSHULUNXINXIANXUEYEYIJIETIJINGYANFENGFUDELAOYUANGONG。YUANGONGDEQIWANGZAIBUDUANBIANHUA,BAOKUOGENGJIAPIANXIANGYULINGHUODEGONGZUOTIAOJIAN、SHUZIHUAGONGZUOMOSHI、YIJI“ZIXIAERSHANG”DEGUANLITIXI。YINCI,YUNYINGSHANGYINGJISHICAIQUCUOSHIDIAOZHENGQIYEWENHUAHEJIUYEFULI,QUEBAONENGGOUJIXUXIYINHEGEDELAODONGLI。

2.2 供应链

bb滚球王WEICHIJIANKANGDEGONGYINGLIANSHILTOMIANLINDEGENGJISHOUTIAOZHAN。HEDIANSHESHISHOUMINGZHANG,BUJIANGENGHUANPINLVDI,DINGDANSHULIANGXIANGDUIJIAOSHAO,SHIDEGONGYINGSHANGBUDEBUQUANHENGSHIFOUYOUBIYAOBAOCHIANGGUIDEHEDIANRENZHENG,ZHEIJIANGDAOZHIHEGEGONGYINGSHANGJIAOSHAO,CHENGBENGENGGAO。YINCI,YUNYINGSHANGHEGONGYINGSHANGXUGONGTONGNULI,BAOZHANGXIAOHAOXINGBUJIANZAIZHENGGEYUNYINGSHOUQINEIJUNNENGYOUXIAOGONGYING。

WEIBUDUANTISHENGANQUANXINGYUJINGJIXING,HENENGLINGYUJUYOUQIANGLIEDECHUANGXINDONGLI。DANDUIYULTOERYAN,CHUANGXINWANGWANGYIWEIZHETAOTAI,JISHUGEXINKENENGSHIDEHEDIANCHANGWUFACONGGONGYINGLIANZHONGHUODELAOJIUSHEBEI。ERQIE,HEGONGYEBIAOZHUNTONGCHANGJINZHIZHIJIESHIYONGXINGYEWAIDEXIANCHENGCHANPIN(OTS),TONGSHIYAOQIUJIANGGEZHONGRONGYUXITONGZUOWEIZONGSHENFANGYUDEYIBUFENJINXINGWEIHU,ZHEIYIWEIZHEBIXUJIANGJIUXITONGZUOWEIXINXITONGDEBEIFENHUOTIDAIPIN,YIGEJINGDIANDELIZIJIUSHIMUQIANHAIYOUHENDUOHEDIANCHANGRENGZAISHIYONGSHOUYAODIANHUA。CIWAI,CONGLTODEJIAODULAIKAN,CHUANGXINHAIBAOHANZHEXIEDIAOGUOJIGUIFANHEBIAOZHUN,BINGSHISHI“SHANGYEJIRENZHENGLIUCHENG”,SHIGENGDUOPUTONGSHANGYEJICHANPINYOUZIGEZAIHEDIANBUMENZHONGSHIYONG。

bb滚球王XINJISHUYEKEFAHUIZHONGYAOZUOYONG。SHIXIANLTODEGUANJIANJISHUBAOKUO:

● SHUZIHUA/SHUZILUANSHENGJISHUYOUZHUYUJINXINGSHEJIBIANGENGHEZHISHIGUANLIHUODONG。

bb滚球王● ZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHUQUEBAOTESHUZUJIANZAIGONGYINGSHANGTINGZHIGONGYINGHOUDEKEYONGXING。

● ZIDONGHUAHECHUANGANQIJISHUJIANGCUJINXITONGJIANKANGJIANCEHEWEIHU,YANZHANGGUANJIANBUJIANDESHIYONGSHOUMING。

● RENGONGZHINENGJISHUYOUZHUYUGAIJINXIANGMUJINDUGUIHUA,CONGERJIANGDITINGDUIHEGAIZAOQIJIANDECHENGBEN、SHIJIANHEFENGXIAN。

bb滚球王● JIQIRENJISHUZAINANYIKAOJINHEGAOFUSHEDEHUANJINGZHONGYINGYONGYUELAIYUEGUANG,BINGKEYUANCHENGZHIXINGWEIXIURENWU。

bb滚球王● XINXINGRANLIAOSHEJIKETIGAOANQUANXING,JIANGDISHIGUFENGXIANHEYINGXIANG,TONGSHICUJINYUNYINGLINGHUOXINGHEGONGLVDETISHENG。

2.3 政府、监管机构和利益相关方

ZHENGFUYINGJIXUJIJIZHICHIHENENG,QUEBAOZHENGCELIANXUXING。DUIYUZHENGFULAISHUO,JINYUNXULTOSHIBUGOUDE,HAIXUYAOJIJIJINXINGTOUZI,JI:

● JIADAJICHUJIAOYUTOURU,QUEBAOYONGYOUSHULIANDEGONGRENDUIWU。

bb滚球王● ZHIDINGCHANYEZHANLVE,WEICHIGONGYINGLIANJIANKANG。

● GAIGESHICHANGJIEGOU,ZHONGSHIHENENGDEFEIDIANLIYINGYONG。

bb滚球王● ZAIBUFENGUOJIA,LTOBIXUYOUGONGZHONGCANYU,YINCIDANGDIZHENGFUYINGQUEBAOZHEIYIGUOCHENGDETOUMINGDU,BINGXIANGLIYIXIANGGUANFANGTIGONGJIYUSHISHIDEXINXI,CHUANQUANHEHUANJINGFENGXIANWAI,HAIYINGBAOHANSHEHUI、JINGJIXIAOYIDENEIRONG。

bb滚球王YOUYUQIYEHEJINRONGJIGOUXUJIANGZHENGCEFENGXIANKAOLVZAINEI,YINCIRENHEXINGSHIDEQIHEZHENGCEDOUHUIRAOLUANHEDIANCHANGLTODEJINCHENG,BINGDAOZHICHENGBENZENGJIA,SHIDEGUOJIAQIHOUMUBIAOGENGJIANANYISHIXIAN。

ZAIZHENGGEHEDIANCHANGYUNYINGQIJIAN,JIANGUANJIGOUDEZUZHIJIAGOUHERENYUANDEBIANHUADOUJIANGYINGXIANGLTODESHISHI,YINCI,JIANGUANJIGOUYEXUYAOZHIDINGYIGEZHANGQIFANGAN。TONGSHI,JIANGUANJIGOUYINGJUBEIZUGOUDEFALVQUANWEI、JISHUHEGUANLINENGLIYIJIRENLIHECAIZHENGZIYUAN,QUEBAOXIANYOUDEJIANGUANKUANGJIAYINGYUXUYAOMINGQUEJIEDINGDELTODEYAOQIUXIANGYIZHI。CIWAI,JIANGUANJIGOUHAIYINGJIAQIANGGUOJIHEZUO,GONGXIANGLEISIDIANCHANGDEYUNYINGLISHIBINGCONGQITAXIANGMUZHONGXIQUJINGYAN,CUJINLTODESHUNLISHISHI。

CHUYUNYINGSHANG、ZHENGFUHEJIANGUANJIGOUZHIJIANDEGUANXIWAI,QITALIYIXIANGGUANFANG(RUDANGDISHEQU)DERENTONGHECANYUYESHILTODEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN。MOUXIEGUOQUDECANYUHEGOUTONGFANGFAXIANZAIKENENGYIJINGSHIXIAO,YINCIXUZHONGXINPINGGUXIANYOULIYIXIANGGUANFANGDECANYUHEGOUTONGGONGZUO,QUEDINGQIZAILTODEMUBIAOHETEDINGTIAOZHANFANGMIANDEYOUXIAOXING。

3 小结

HEDIANCHANGLTOYIDEDAOCHENGGONGSHIFAN,XIANYICHENGWEIBIAOZHUNHUADEGONGZUOMOSHI。DANGJINQUANQIUZAIYUNDEJUEDADUOSHUHEDIANJIZUZAIJISHUSHANGNENGGOUYUNXING60NIANSHENZHIGENGZHANGSHIJIAN,80NIANZHENGCHENGWEIXINDEJIZHUN。LTOYIWEIZHEXIANYOUHEDIANCHANGKEYIJIXUDALIANGSHENGCHANKEKAO、DITANDIANLI,DAFUZENGJIALEZHEIXIEFADIANZICHANDEJIAZHI。

ZUIJINYOUDUOTAIHEDIANJIZUYINZHENGZHIERFEIJISHUYINSUTIQIANGUANTING,DADUOGUIYINYUJINGJIYUANYINDEGUANTINGYESHOUDAOZHENGZHIYINGXIANG。LIRU,ZAI2011NIAN3YUEFUDAOSHIGUHOU,RIBENDIANLIGONGSIWUFAMANZUJIANGUANJIGOUTICHUDEANGGUIZHONGQITIAOJIAN。QITAYINJINGJIGUANTINGDEDIANCHANGYEBINGFEIQUEFAJINGZHENGLI,ERSHISHOUDAOSHICHANGSHILINGDEYINGXIANG。RUGUOGEGUORENZHENYANPANSHIJIEDITANFAZHANXINGSHIBINGBAOLIUZHEIXIEHEDIANCHANGDAILAIDEZHONGDUOYICHU,NEIMECHUYUZHENGZHIHEJINGJIYINSUGUANTINGHEDIANJIZUDEQINGKUANGJIANGDADAJIANSHAO。

SUIRANLTOSHIYIGEJINPODEQUANQIUYOUXIANSHIXIANG,DANTABUYINGZUZHIXIANYOUDEHEDIANGUOJIAbbGUNQIUWANGXINHEDIANJIZU。HEDIANCHANGZUIZHONGDOUJIANGTUIYI,LTOKEYITONGGUOBAOLIUQIGUANJIANJISHUNENGLI,WEIWEILAIXINJIANHEDIANCHANGDIANDINGJICHU。LTOHEXINJIANHEDIANFANGANYINGTONGSHIKAIZHAN,GONGTONGSHIXIANJIANPAIMUBIAO。

bb滚球王YEJIE、ZHENGFUHEJIANGUANJIGOUPOQIEXUYAOCAIQUXINGDONG,ZUIDAXIANDUDITIGAOXIANYOUHEDIANCHANGDECHANNENG。YUNYINGSHANGYING:

bb滚球王● ZAICHUQIJIEDUANJIUYINRUDIANCHANGSHOUMINGGUANLIHESHEJIBIANGENGGUANLIJIHUA。

bb滚球王● ZAIQUZHENGJIXIANDAIHUAGAIZAOZHIQIAN,DUIZHENGZHI、JINGJI、SHEHUI、JISHU、FALVHEHUANJINGFANGMIANKENENGCUNZAIDEWEIXIEHEJIHUIJINXINGPINGGU。

● JIAQIANGQIYEWENHUAbbGUNQIUWANG,JIADADIANCHANGXIANDAIHUAGAIZAOFANGMIANTOURU,QUEBAOJUBEIBIYAODENEIWAIBURENLIZIYUAN。

CIWAI,ZAIHEDIANCHANGYUELAIYUEZHANGDEYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONG,YUNYINGSHANGHEGONGYINGSHANGHAIYINGQUEBAOQIBUJIANKEZHENGCHANGSHIYONG。LTOYIYISHANGDECHUANGXINYINGBAOKUOXIEDIAOGUOJIGUIFANHEBIAOZHUN,BINGSHISHI“SHANGYEJIRENZHENGLIUCHENG”。SHUZIHUA、ZENGCAIZHIZAO、JIQIRENJISHU、RENGONGZHINENG、ZIDONGHUAHEXIANJINHERANLIAODENGXINJISHUYEJIANGFAHUIGUANJIANZUOYONG。

GEGUOZHENGFUBUJINYINGYUNXUHEDIANCHANGDELTO,HAIXUJIJIZHICHIHENENG,BINGQUEBAOXIANGGUANZHENGCEDELIANXUXING。ZUOWEIGONGYEZHANLVEDEYIBUFEN,ZHENGFUHAIYINGWEIBIYAODEJICHUJIAGOUbbGUNQIUWANGTIGONGJIAOYUPEIXUNZIYUAN,BINGCHENGRENHEDIANDEYOUSHI,ZHONGXINGUIHUANENGYUANSHICHANG,YIRENSHIDAOHENENGDAILAIDEZHUDUOHAOCHU。ZAICIBANGZHUXIA,XIANYOUHEDIANCHANGJIANGZAIJIENENGJIANPAIJIFADIANFANGMIANFAHUICHUBIYUXIANGGENGDADEJIAZHI。






你知道你的Internet Explorer是过时了吗?

WEILEDEDAObbGUNQIUWANGWANGZHANZUIHAODETIYANXIAOGUO,bbGUNQIUWANGJIANYININSHENGJIDAOZUIXINBANBENDEInternet ExplorerHUOXUANZELINGYIGEwebLIULANQI.YIGELIEBIAOZUILIUXINGDEwebLIULANQIZAIXIAMIANKEYIZHAODAO.

bb滚球王-官网APP下载1

mg游戏平台bbin游戏平台竞咪21官方下载bbin真人电子泛亚电竞英雄时时乐下载威尼斯真人ag 中国体彩网app_中国体彩官方app下载安卓 AG真人国际厅 - 官网首页 雨燕体育_雨燕体育直播_雨燕直播足球 幸运飞艇软件app 500电竞网址 ku酷游体育官网 AG真人国际厅和旗舰厅 c位体育app AG真人国际厅 - 官网首页 宝宝计划-宝宝计划官方网站 腾讯时时彩-首页