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核能知识
“二百五”的说法是无稽之谈 ??核电站事故与原子弹之比较
时间: 2018年04月17日 来源:bb滚球王-官网APP下载 作者: 郝东秦 汤紫德 点击量: 5040 分享:

    qianbujiu,youyiweimingrenzaimeitishanggongkaixuanyang,shuo: hedianzhanyanzhongshiguyingxianglixiangdangyu250geyuanzidanweihairenleihehuanjing。ciyanhairentingwen,quehaowuyijukexun,qijibenguannianhequzhifangfadoushicuowude。youyuyuanlishishizhenxiang,qiguanniansuibuweiguangdagongzhongjieshou,quezaikeguanshang,wudaoleshaoshubumingzhenxiangderenjishengzhuduomomingqimiaodewujie,henbuliyubbgunqiuwangguohenenghepingliyongjihedianshiyedejiankangfazhan。

  bbgunqiuwangyingchangdaobaishishi、zhongshuju、jiangdaoli、shuozhenhua,quweicunzhen,yizhengshiting。

  一、比较核电站事故与原子弹要从实际出发

  bbgunqiuwangzhidao,henengyingyongzhuyaofenweiliangdalei,yishizhizaohewuqi,ershituijinhenenghepingliyong。erzhedefazhanfangxiang、jibenmubiao、shehuirentong、shichangdiweigebuxiangtong。zaishehuifazhan、nengyuanxuqiuzengzhangyijibaohuhuanjingmubiaodetuidongxia,zhuiqiugaishannengyuanjiegou,renleixuanzelekaifahenenghepingliyong,xuanzelefazhanhedianshiye。

  hedianzhanheyuanzidandenenglianglaiyuandouyilaiyuyuanzihejiehenengdeshifang。muqian,henengyingyongdadoushitongguo235ujishaoliang238uheliebianchanshengde。heliebianyuansudecunzaishiweichiheliebiandegenbenjizhiheyuantou,shichanshengheliebianneng、kaifahenenghepingliyongdejibenyinsu。

  suizhehenenghepingliyongfanweidetuokuan,qizhongheliebiannengyingyongxingshizhuyaoyongyuhenengfadian、hedonglizhuangzhi,yijihenenggongre、zhileng、zhiqing、haishuidanhua。ciwai,haibaokuoshengchangezhongyongtudetongweisu,tigonghefuzhaoyuandeng。heshuaibianneng(fangshexingtongweisuzhaoshe)beigengjiaguangfandiyingyongyugongyetanshang、nongyongyuzhong、yiliaoweisheng、shipinbaoxian、xingshizhenchadengguangkuolingyu。

  yuanzidanhebao,qizaihaixiaoguotongguojizhongfangshichuanbo: baozhachongjibo、guangfushe、rechuandao、hefusheheqiangdiancimaichongdeng,yijihuanfahefushe,fangshexingtongweisu(baokuozhangshouqifangshexinghesu)sanluowuran。

  hedianzhandesheji、jianzaoheyunxingdouyouxilieanquanbaozhang,shigulvjidi,chuxianfangshexingwuzhixielouyanzhongshigudefengxiandoukongzhizai10-6~10-8zhixia,bingyouxiangyingcuoshizuzhihuoyanhuanshigudefasheng,shiqiduihuanjingdeyingxiangzuixiaohua。1979nianmeiguosanlidaohedianzhanfashengyanzhongshiguhou,renmenyouguozuzhifangshexingwuzhixieloudechenggongjingyan,suihouyoubuduanzaiqijichushangzuolegengduogaijin,shihouxuxinjianhedianzhandeanquanshuipingyoulegengdatigao,renmenkebubidanxinfangshexingwuzhiwaixie,gouchengduihuanjingdeyanzhongwuran,gengbubidanxinyou“250geyuanzidan”hebaoneibanzhizaozainan,weihairenleihehuanjing。

  yinci,bijiaohedianzhanshiguheyuanzidanbaozhashiyigebeishougejieguanzhu、jiyansuyoumingandewenti。shejizheixiangbijiaoshi,yingyikexueyanjindetaidu,yijushishi,congshijichufa,congzhongzuochujutifenxi、zhuyishuoming,haibixuduihediananquanjishubuduanjinbudexianzhuangyoujiaochongfenlejie,fuzeren、youdandangdijinxingbijiao,bukesuixinsuoyu、xinkoukaihe、hunxiaoshifei。

  二、核电站事故与原子弹爆炸有天壤之别

bb滚球王  weilebijiaohedianzhanshiguyuyuanzidanliangzhezuoyong,bbgunqiuwangxuanzelianggejuyoudianxingyiyishili:

  yuanzidan,xuanzezuizao、xiangduiweilizuixiao,jierzhanshimeiguotoufangribendeliangkeyuanzidan;

  hedianzhanshigu,xuanzeyingxiangzuidadeqieernuobeilihedianzhan4haojizushigu。

  bbgunqiuwangzhidao,yuanzidanyinbaohou,chaoshunfalinjiebaofabukekonghefanying,yiduozhongfangshishifangnengliang,yidadaoshashangdirendemude。1945nian8yuemeiguotouzhiribenguangdaoyuanzidan,yicishashangdangdijumin14.5wanren,qizhongdangchangbiming6.8wanren,zhenggechengshichengweiyipianfeixu。

  erhedianzhantouyunhou,hefanyingduishizhongweichizaihuanfalinjiefujinshoukongzhuangtai,xuxushifangheneng,bingzhuanhuanweirenenghedianli,gongyingqianjiawanhu。jishichuxianguzhang,yehuiyouduocengfanghu、pingbi,xiaochuguzhanghuocuqijianhuanzhizuixiaoyingxiang。

  shijiehedianfazhanliushiyunianlai,youguosancihedianzhanyanzhongshigu,qizhongweihaizuidadeqieernuobeili4haojizu,youyutacaiyonglecunzaishejiquexiandeshimoshuilengfanyingdui,anquanshefangyebuwanbei,hedaochangfangweishezhianquanqiao,yizhizairenyinshiwuyinfachaolinjieyanzhongshigushi,duixinronghuachanshengdeqingqi、shuizhengqijishimohunheranshaobaozha,liantongshaoxuheranliaobeipaochuchangfang,danzaishiguchuliguochengzhong,juedabufenbeipaochuwudoushishihuishoufengguan,jizhongtianmaichuzhi。

  zaiqieernuobeilihedianzhanyanzhongshiguzhong,you31mingxianchangjicanyujiuzairenyuanbuxingyunan。

bb滚球王  qitaliangcihedianzhanyanzhongshigu,yicifashengzaimeiguosanlidaohedianzhan,yinrenyuancaozuo、shebeiguzhangdaozhiduixinronghua;lingyicifashengzairibenfudao,yindizhen、haixiaodaozhihedianzhanyanzhongshigu。zheiliangqishigudoumeiyouyinfushezhirenyuansiwangdejilu,zhiyoufangshexingqitihedifangfeiyexielou。

  kejian,hedianzhanshiguyuyuanzidanbaozhaduishehuihegongzhongdeyingxiangcunzaizheshoukonghebushoukongdetianrangzhibie,bukehunweiyitan。

bb滚球王  ciwai,youyuqieernuobeilihedianzhancaiyongcunzaishejiquexiandeshimoshuilengfanyingdui,anquanshefangbuwanbeijunzaihoulaijinxinglezhongdaxiugai,jiudeshejijishubeixinjianhedianchangtaotaichuju。duiyumuqianquanqiuzaiyunhexinjianhedianzhanzhong,qieernuobeilihedianzhanjixingbujurenhedaibiaoxing,bunengdaibiaohuokeguanfanyingxianzaiyunxinghediananquanxingdeshijishuipinghezhuangtai。erxuanyang“hedianzhanyanzhongshiguyingxianglixiangdangyu250geyuanzidanweihairenleihehuanjing”demingren,queyouyiniuquqizhongshuju,biandihediananquan,zheiduihedianlaishuoshibugongpingde,yeshibufuzerende。

  三、鉴别核电站事故与原子弹爆炸差异的主要数据

bb滚球王  yixia,bbgunqiuwanglianxishiji,xuanzezaoqiyuanzidanheqieernuobeili4haofanyingduiyanzhongshiguxiangguanshujujinxingbijiao,weihouxufenxijinxingpudian、tigongcankao。

早期原子弹和切尔诺贝利核电站事故主要数据列表

  congshijishujufenxi,zuiyanzhongdeqieernuobeilihedianzhanshigu(yourenyuanshangwang)deyingxiangshendushangqieruci,qitahedianshiguyingxiangziranqingweixuduo。

  四、250倍的来历与解读

bb滚球王  benwenkaitou,yinyongleyiweimingrenzhiyan──“hedianzhanyanzhongshiguyingxianglixiangdangyu250geyuanzidanweihairenleihehuanjing”。zheige“250”congheerlai?

  weishuomingzheigewenti,shouxian,bbgunqiuwangxuyaorenshihuozhongwenlianggebingwuguanliandeshuju: qiyi,changjianjiaokeshuhuowenxianjieshaoyuanzidanyouzhuangliaowei20~25kggaofujiyou;qier、yourengusuan,qieernuobeilihedianzhanfashengshigushi,fanyingduibaozhacengpaochu5~6tfeijianwu。bbgunqiuwangzhidao,dangshipaochudefeijianwuzhongbaokuoduixinshimodengjiegoucailiao,bingfeidoushiyouranliao,jibianshiyouranliao,tadefujiduyebuguo2%zuoyou,yuyuanzidandegaofujidu(80~90%)zhuangliaoxiangbichajuhenda。zairuciqingkuangxia,jingranbeiqianqiangfuhuidiyongyu“xueshu”bijiao,zuochulingrenzashedehuangmiujielun,jisuoweihedianzhanshigudeyingxiangshiyuanzidande250bei!zheidagaijiushi“250”delaili。

  yixia,bbgunqiuwangzhenduishangshujielun,jieheyijingjichudezaoqiyuanzidanheqieernuobeili4haojizufanyingduiyanzhongshiguxiangguanshuju,jinxingruxiafenxi,yibianzhenwei。

bb滚球王  1.bbgunqiuwangzhidao,yuanzidanshidaguimoshashangxingwuqi,qiweihaijiangzaochengdaliangrenyuansiwang,jianzhusheshibeicuihui,dapiantudi、shuiziyuanzaoshouhewurandeng;erhedianzhanshituijinhenenghepingliyong、gaishannengyuanjiegoudezhongyaotujing,juyoujigaodeanquanxing,fengxianjixiao,jishifashengshigu,qiyingxiangdadouchuyushoukongzhuangtai,keshijixiaochudaliangfangshexingshifang。

  2.hedianzhanshiguhuoyuanzidandeweihaijiyingxiang,zhuyaoshiyou(bu)heliebianyinqide,erbushiyouxiangguanwuzhidezhongliangzhibituisuanchulaide。yangelaijiang,yingdangshouxianyitouruliebiande235ushijizhiliangjinxingbijiao。canyueshangbiao“shifangliebian235u”lan,yiqingxibiaoming: yuanzidanhebaocanyuliebiande235uwei0.8~1.2kg,erqieernuobeilihedianzhan4haofanyingduipaochuwuzhongjin1.23kg235u,liangzhexiangbi,zhiliangshifenjiejin,nayou250bei?

bb滚球王  qier,bijiaoheliebianchanshengdenengliang。hedianzhandeheliebian(ranhao)shishoukongde,qiedouzaifanyingduineijinxing,chanshengdenengliangdadouyiredexingshijishizhuanhuanweizhengqifadianxiangwaishusong,yidanchuxianbuce,fanyingduihuilijitingdui,duineisuoshengnengliangzhishiyure。yinci,hedianzhanfashengshigushi,jishihaiyouheliebianfanyingcunzai,yezhiyoujishaoliangdeliebiannengliang(zongjixiaoyu7%),eryuanzidanheliebiannengdeshifangquanbujizhongzaibaozhashunjian。kejian,hedianzhanshiguheyuanzidanbaozhanengliangdeshifangzhuangtaijiqiyingxianglijieranbutong,buyizhiyutongyipingtaijinxingleibi。

bb滚球王  3.250beidebizhishiyuanzidangaofujiduyou(>90%)zhuangliaoyuhedianzhanfanyingduidifujiduyou(~2%)ranliaopaochuwuzhongliangdebijiao,jibushiliebian235uzhiliangdebijiao,yebushichanshengheliebiannengliangdebijiao。suoweimingrenjingranyiechuane,yiyuanzidanbaozhaweilijihouguo,hairentingwendiqiangjiayuhedianzhanshigu。yinciyishangbijiao,bujinquzhiqianqiangfuhui,gengbaoluqijibenguanquanrancuowu。

  bbgunqiuwangduizhenshiqingkuangzuoguorenzhenfenxi,biaoming: yuanzidanheqieernuobeili4haofanyingduibaozhapaochuwuzhongsuoyongyoudeliebianwuzhiliangxiangjin,danerzhechengxiandenengliangshifangzhuangtaijiqiyingxianglixiangchashenyuan,yehaowukebixing,genghekuangshiguhouduipaochuwusuijijinxinglehuishouchuzhi。

bb滚球王  4.yuanzidanbaozhanengliang(baokuohefusheheguangfushedeng)dadouzaibaozhashunjianshifang,zhiyouhuanfafangshexinghezhangshoumingfangshexinghesudezuoyongzaishihoujixufasheng。erhedianzhanranliaoliebianjunzaishiguqianfasheng,bingzaifanyingduineiyijishizhuanhuanweireneng、dianlichuansongchuqu。shigufashengshi,duixinhefanyingyijingtingzhi,shengyuhenengshifangliangjishao。zaiqieernuobeili4haojizushiguhouchuliguochengzhong,shouxianshoujibaozhashipaochuderanliaosuikuai(baokuoyouliebianchanwugutixingtaibufen)quanbuzhuangrushiguanjinxingfengbi,zaiyanmaijiayifugai,shiqikongzhizaishiguxianchangxiaofanweizhinei。erqie,shigubaozhashipaochuderanliaozaiduiwaizhiliudeshijianshiduanzande,yiliuliangjishao(juefei5~6t),bingyicaiqucuoshi,jinlijianshaoleduihuanjingdeyingxiang。

  五、长寿命(半衰期)放射性对环境的影响

bb滚球王  heliebianfanyingjizhongzifushechanshengzhangshoumingfangshexingtongweisu,zhuyaoshichaoyouyuansuhe99tc、129ideng。

  1.chaoyouhesuzhuyaobaokuo:

  chaoyouhesuzaifanyingduineichanedi,youqishizaidiranhaoyunxingshi,zongliangyuan<0.07%(chukezaihouchulishihuishoude235uhe239puwai)。

  2.liebianchanwuzhongzhangshoumingfangshexinghesuyou:

bb滚球王  jiaozhangshouming85kr(10.7nian)、90sr(28nian)、137cs(30nian)

  zhangshouming128i(1700nian)、99tc(213nian)、14c(5760nian)(feichanwu)、14n(n.p)

bb滚球王  liebianchane<3%,ranhaozhijiaodideranliaozhongjiaoshao,zhangshoumingfangshexingtongweisuzailiebianchanwuzhongbilisuiranhendi,danwuranweihaishijianhenzhang。

  3.hedianzhandezhangshoumingliebianchanwuhesuhechaoyouhesu,juedabufenhesujunweigutixingtai,cunzaiyufaranliaozhong。zhuyaocunzaideshengyuyouuhexinchanshengbupu,zaifaranliaohouchuliguochengzhonghuishou,huishoulvkeda99%yishang。

  hedianzhanfaranliaohouchuliguochengzhongxingchengdeqiangfangshexingrongyezhong,you、buchendianfenlihou,jiangbaokuozhangshoufangshexinghesurongye(qiangfang)boliguhuahousongfangshexingfeiwuyongjiuchuzhichangzhucun;zaibujinxingfaranliaohouchulideguojia,duiyishangshengchengwuyuranliaoyibingshixingzhucunjianguan。

  4.hedianzhanyouyushezhiyalirongqiheanquanchangfang,jiazhiranliaoxinkuaijiqijinshubaoqiaoguandepingbizuoyong,shiguzhuangtaixiaranliaonengliangbukenengshifangchulai,zhiyoujigebiezaoqihedianjixingzaizuiyanzhongshiguzhongfashengguoyici,jiqieernuobeili4haofanyingdui。neishizaiyicichangguishiyanzhong,youyuhushilebiyaodeanquanjiankongeryoufadeyiciyanzhongshigu,shifangchuxiedaishaoliangshengyushuaibiannengderanliao5~6t,qizhangshouqifangshexinghesuhegutailiebianchanwuzhongdezhangshouminghesujuncunzaiyufaranliaozhong。zheileiwuzhidouzaiqieernuobeiliheshiguchulizhongshoujihuilong,bingxianhoushucijiangfanyingduijiaqianfugai、jiahunningtufengbi,yidadajianshaohoulaiduizhoubiandeyingxiang。

  5.hedianzhanduixinronghuashigugailvyicongqieernuobeilifanyingduide10-3~10-4/duinian,gaijinjiangdizhi10-5~10-6/duinianzhixia。

bb滚球王  dangjin,hedianzhananquanxingyiyoujidatigao,qiduixinronghuagailvxiajiang,shenzhishifangliebianranliaodekenengxingyijibenxiaochu。

  六、正确辨别铀存储、核燃料、裂变能与环境的关系

  quanshijieyitanmingyoukuangziyuan1640wandun,diqiaozhonghanyoupingjun1×10-6,haiyangzhonghanyoulianggujidashushiyidun,pingjunhanyoulv3×10-9zuoyou,youyutianranyouzhong235ufujidu(fengdu)jinwei0.71%,zaiziranjieyoubujubeiliebiantiaojian(zifaliebianjishao)。yinci,ziranjieyoucunliangsuiduo,danqimiduxiao、fengdudi,buhuiyinfaliebian、shifangheneng,duihuanjingyebuhuichanshengmingxianyingxiang。shuomingyiyoushuliangdeduoshaolaiduliangheshigusunhaidedaxiao,neizhongyiyouzhongliangdejiandanbizhi,tuiduanchuhedianzhanyanzhongshigucengpaochude5~6dunheranliaodeweihai,biyuanzidandeyingxiangda250beidejielunmeidaoli、bukexue。

  jushijiehexiehuizuixintongji,jiezhi2016nianshangbannian,quanqiugongyou30geguojiayunxing444taihedianjizu,yileijiyunxing16386duinian,chanshengdefaranliaojin20duowanthm。hedianzhanranliaodeheliebianfashengzaifanyingduinei。henengzaishoukongdetiaojianxiazhuanhuaweirenengxingshibeiliyonghuobeilengque,chanshengdefaranliaosuodaidefangshexingheshuaibianrezhishiliebianshifangnengliangdehenxiaobufen,jingguozaihedianzhanzancun5~10nianhou,shengyudeshuaibiannenggengshao,qiequandousuifaranliaobeizhucunhuochuzhi。youguanfaranliaozhuyun、zhucun、chuzhisheshi,guojiajishishidanweidouyouyangejianguan,duihuanjingdeyingxiang,douhuibeikongzhizaiyunxufanweixianzhiyinei。

bb滚球王  meiguo、faguo、eluosi、riben、hanguo、yindudengguofazhanhenengjiaoduo,kucundeyoujinshu、nongsuoyouhefaranliaolianghenda,chuyinduwai,dadouchaoguobbgunqiuwangguo,youdeguojiayefashengguoheshigu,tamenbingweiyinciwuduanxuanran,zhizao“hedianzhanshiguweihaidayuyuanzidan”dekongbuyanlun。

  zuihou,jieyongkexuejiaaobenhaimozaishouciguanchadaoyuanzidanbaozhachuxianhuoqiushishifengankai,cengshuo: qiguangmang“zhiyouyiqiangetaiyangcainengyuqizhenghui”。weimiaodixingrongyuanzidanyiqi235ugaomidu、gaofengdu,gaosuheliebianxiangwaiquanbushifangsuoguanchadaodejudahuoqiudetedian,qiyingxiangkendingshengguohedianzhanzuiyanzhongshigushuqianbei。neigebenmodaozhi,bahedianzhanshigubizuo250geyuanzidandeyanlunshiduomehuangdanerbuzhebianji,wanquanquefalilunheshijiandezhichi。

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